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- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_sqrt***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_sqrt***(double*`num`) -
`ncptl_func_sqrt()`

returns the unique integer*x*such that*x*x <=*.`num`and (x+1)*(x+1) >`num``ncptl_dfunc_sqrt()`

returns the square root of`num`in double-precision arithmetic.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_cbrt***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_cbrt***(double*`num`) -
`ncptl_func_cbrt()`

returns the unique integer*x*such that*x*x*x <=*.`num`and (x+1)*(x+1)*(x+1) >`num``ncptl_dfunc_cbrt()`

returns the cube root of`num`in double-precision arithmetic.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_root***(ncptl_int*`root`, ncptl_int`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_root***(double*`root`, double`num`) -
Return the

`root`th root of a number`num`.`ncptl_func_root()`

returns the largest-in-magnitude integer`x`with the same sign as`num`such that*|*. Currently,`x`^`root`| <= |`num`|`num`must be nonnegative but this may change in a future release of coNCePTuaL.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_bits***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_bits***(double*`num`) -
Return the minimum number of bits needed to represent a given integer. (

`num`is rounded up to the nearest integer in the case of`ncptl_dfunc_bits()`

.)

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_shift_left***(ncptl_int*`num`, ncptl_int`bits`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_shift_left***(double*`num`, double`bits`) -
Shift a number to the left by

`bits`bits. This corresponds to multiplying`num`by*2^bits*. In the case of`ncptl_dfunc_shift_left()`

,`num`and`bits`are first converted to`ncptl_int`

values. There are no corresponding`ncptl_func_shift_right()`

or`ncptl_dfunc_shift_right()`

functions because shifting right by*x*is defined to be equivalent to shifting left by*-x*.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_log10***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_log10***(double*`num`) -
Return the base-10 logarithm of

`num`. In the case of`ncptl_func_log10()`

, this value is rounded down to the nearest integer.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_factor10***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_factor10***(double*`num`) -
Return

`num`rounded down to the nearest single-digit factor of a power of 10.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_abs***(ncptl_int*`num`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_abs***(double*`num`) -
Return

`num`’s absolute value. In the case of`ncptl_func_log10()`

, this value is rounded down to the nearest integer.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_power***(ncptl_int*`base`, ncptl_int`exponent`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_power***(double*`base`, double`exponent`) -
Return

`base`raised to the power of`exponent`.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_modulo***(ncptl_int*`numerator`, ncptl_int`denominator`) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_modulo***(double*`numerator`, double`denominator`) -
Return the remainder of dividing

`numerator`by`denominator`. The result is guaranteed to be a nonnegative integer.`ncptl_dfunc_modulo()`

rounds each of`numerator`and`denominator`down to the nearest integer before dividing and taking the remainder.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_min***(ncptl_int*`count`, …) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_min***(double*`count`, …) -
Return the minimum of a list of numbers. The first argument specifies the number of remaining arguments and must be a positive integer.

- Function:
*ncptl_int***ncptl_func_max***(ncptl_int*`count`, …) - Function:
*double***ncptl_dfunc_max***(double*`count`, …) -
Return the maximum of a list of numbers. The first argument specifies the number of remaining arguments and must be a positive integer.